Bankr. E.D.N.C.: Baum v. Baum- Discharge under § 523(a)(15) for Debts In Connection with Divorce Decree


During a period of financial distress and shortly before their divorce, Doreen Baum made repeated unauthorized withdrawals from the Martin Baum’s IRAs, and did not pay the mortgage on the couple’s beach house, using the funds for the support and maintenance of the family. When the Baums divorced, the parties entered into an consent orders for Alimony and Equitable Distribution. While aware of the unauthorized withdrawals, Martin Baum believed any claims he had for fraud were preserved, whereas Doreen Baum believe these consent orders resolved all issues, including for the unauthorized withdrawals.

Doreen Baum filed Chapter 7 and Martin Baum brought an Adversary Proceeding seeking to both have the bankruptcy court determine that Doreen Baum was indebted to him for compensatory and punitive damages resulting from fraud and to have such declared nondischargable. The initial complaint was not timely filed, so Martin Baum was unable to maintain nondischargability claims under U.S.C. § 523(a)(2) or (4) for debts “obtained by false pretenses, a false representation, or actual fraud . . . [and] for fraud or defalcation while acting in a fiduciary capacity . . . .” The court did, nonetheless, allow amendment of the complaint to assert nondischargability under § 523(a)(15) for a debt incurred “in connection with a separation agreement, divorce decree or other order of a court of record….”

The bankruptcy court then had to determine whether to rule first on the fraud or dischargability claim, which presented a “chicken and egg” conundrum as:

If the court determines that [Doreen Baum] is not liable to [Martin Baum] under the either of Fraud Claims, then there is no debt for determination of dischargeability. Contrarily, if the court determines the Fraud Claims, as asserted, are dischargeable obligations, then the need to fully adjudicate and liquidate the Fraud Claims likewise becomes unnecessary.

Since jurisdiction over the fraud claims, based on state law, was more questionable, the bankruptcy court evaluated dischargability first.

Regarding dischargability, Doreen Baum’s insistence that the equitable distribution order resolved liability from the unauthorized transfers, complicated the determination under § 523(a)(15). That notwithstanding, the bankruptcy court held that as Doreen Baum had no outstanding liability, whether liquidated or not, to Martin Baum as a result of the equitable distribution order, the objection to discharge failed.

Despite having stated that a determination of the fraud claim would be unnecessary if any such debt was dischargeable, the bankruptcy court, nevertheless, continued on in that regard, as the issue could present itself in a later claims objection by the Trustee. While the action by Doreen Baum could meet most of the requirements for either actual or constructive fraud, the bankruptcy court did not, despite expressing it abhorrence at her actions, believe that Martin Baum had been actually damaged, as required for actual fraud, nor that Doreen Baum had sought to benefit herself, as necessary to establish constructive fraud, as the funds were used mainly for joint household expenses. Continuing, the bankruptcy court expressed that punitive damages could be awarded even absent actual damages.


This case has been appealed.

For a copy of the opinion, please see:

Baum v. Baum- Discharge under § 523(a)(15) for Debts In Connection with Divorce Decree


1. Bachelor of Arts degree in English Literature from Washington University, 1993. 2. Juris Doctor degree from George Washington University, 1996. Admissions to Practice of Law: North Carolina Bar, 1996. Federal District Courts for the Eastern and Middle Districts of North Carolina. Specialty Certification: North Carolina State Bar: Certified as a Specialist in Consumer Bankruptcy. Areas of Practice: Practice limited to consumer and business debtor bankruptcy law, 1998 to present. Memberships: National Association of Consumer Bankruptcy Attorneys (NACBA). North Carolina Academy of Trial Lawyers (NCATL). North Carolina Bar Association, Bankruptcy Section. Lectures prepared and presented: North Carolina Academy of Trial Lawyers seminar on bankruptcy; Topic: Counseling the Consumer Debtor Prior to Court - C.Y.A. Forms to Help 'Gird They Loins'; 2001. Middle District Bankruptcy Seminar; Topic: Preparing Chapter 13 Plans; 2002. NACBA National Convention; Topic: Efficient Office Practices; 2003. NACBA National Convention; Topic: Chapter 7 vs. Chapter 13 Debates; 2004. Middle District Bankruptcy Seminar; Topic: Chapter 7 & 13 Hot Issues; 2004. Positions held: NACBA National Convention; Convention Chair; 2008. NACBA National Convention; Panel Moderator: Topic: Basic Bankruptcy Issues; 2008. NACBA National Convention; Panel Moderator; Topic: Chapter 13-Disposable Income and Other Issues; 2007. NACBA National Convention; Panel Moderator; Topic: Representing Members of the Military and Their Families; 2007. NACBA, Member of National Board of Directors, 2006 to present. NCATL, Chair of the Bankruptcy Section, 2003 to 2007. NACBA, Chair of the North Carolina Section, 2003 to 2007. NC Bar Association, Bankruptcy Section, Bankruptcy Council Member, 2004 to present.

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